Most of them are approved for use in sheep but not goats. Lembo T, Oura C, Parida S, Hoare R, Frost L, Fyumagwa R, et al. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and acute viral disease of sheep and goats, with sub-clinical manifestation in cattle, pigs, and camel. Vet. Mdetele et al. Trop Anim Health Product. Emerg Infect Dis. Abubakar M, Ali Q, Khan HA. Veterinary Microbiol. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1502625, 6. Mdetele D, Seth M, Kabululu M, Misinzo G. (2020). The endemicity of PPR therefore poses a threat, not only to the pastoralists and their livelihoods, but potentially also to the conservation of wildlife and endangered wild small ruminant species (24, 52, 73). (2010) 91:2885–97. Grey literature was obtained using Google Search and the official websites of FAO and OIE (www.fao.org and www.oie.int). 1:325–9. Since then, outbreaks of PPR have been reported in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region of southern Tanzania in 2011 (43), in Ngorongoro and Mvomero districts in northern and eastern Tanzania (respectively) in 2012 (41), and in the Loliondo area in Ngorongoro district of Northern Tanzania in 2016 (27). Nkangaga JJ, Matondo AB, Karimuribo E. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in western Tanzania. Consequently, PPR is a major constraint to small ruminant production in Africa (5, 6) and is thus of high economic importance, especially in areas with a high reliance on small ruminant products (7). Arch Virol. Figure 1. initiative, which aims to advance livestock health and productivity in sub Saharan Africa. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12911, 94. (2016) 4:9. doi: 10.13188/2325-4645.1000021, 90. There is need for collaborative efforts to develop interventions to control and eradicate the disease. Viruses. Mbyuzi et al. Additionally, the use of low-cost, easy to use, point of care diagnostic techniques, and alternative non-invasive sample types may improve surveillance (93–95). doi: 10.1586/erv.10.74, 93. Until recently, the most practical vaccination against PPR made use of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine. Losses due to PPR identified in this review include: mortalities associated with the disease, reduced market value caused by poor body condition, culling, the cost of medication, vaccination, veterinary and labor services, and the cost of embargo on livestock markets imposed by authorities. Copyright © 2020 Idoga, Armson, Alafiatayo, Ogwuche, Mijten, Ekiri, Varga and Cook. (1996). Molecular characterisation of lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus using multi gene sequence data. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. 45. Viruses. The Nigerian strain 75/1 PPR vaccine is often used for PPR control in Tanzania, and other Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries (26, 41). Dundon WG, Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, et al. (2019) 66:2067–73. Pastoralism. (2020) 12:930. doi: 10.3390/v12090930. Niyokwishimira A, de D, Baziki J, Dundon WG, Nwankpa N, Njoroge C, Boussini H, et al. Dundon WG, Diallo A, Cattoli G. Peste des petits ruminants in Africa: a review of currently available molecular epidemiological data, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. Torsson E, Kgotlele T, Berg M, Mtui-Malamsha N, Swai ES, Wensman JJ, et al. Identifying age cohorts responsible for Peste des petits ruminants virus transmission among sheep, goats, and cattle in northern Tanzania. Detection and genome analysis of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus in Kenya in 2011. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 37. History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania. Epub 2020 Aug 21. A pointer to this is the fact that the first report of PPR in Tanzania was an outbreak in Ngorongoro district, bordering Kenya (36, 53), and the strain of PPRV isolated belonged to lineage III, the same lineage predominant in Kenya, and other countries in East Africa at that time (36, 62). Entebe. Veterinary Microbiol. (2020) 165:2147–63. doi: 10.22004/ag.econ.57469, 85. Improving the delivery of veterinary services in Africa: insights from the empirical application of transaction costs theory in Uganda and Kenya. Kgotlele T, Chota A, Chubwa CC, Nyasebwa O, Lyimo B, Torsson E, et al. El Wahab Hosny WA, Baheeg EM, El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM. Optimization and evaluation of a non-invasive tool for peste des petits ruminants surveillance and control. doi: 10.1007/s13337-018-0455-3, 88. | 2. 36. Consequently, the estimated total loss of income to PPR was estimated to be TZS 335,420 (155 Euro) per household per year, amounting to a cumulative national loss in excess of TZS 200 billion (92 million Euro) per year (26). The authors attributed the difference in sero-prevalence to vaccination that was performed in the Morogoro and Mtwara regions prior to sample collection in 2014, and therefore it is likely that the high seropositivity was influenced by vaccine-induced antibodies, compared with a population containing more naïve susceptible animals (3–12 months of age) during the 2015 sample collection. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Epub 2011 Nov 15. However, retrospective serological analysis performed by Karimuribo et al. Current perspectives on conventional and novel vaccines against peste des petits ruminants. Veterinary Rec. Thirty-three articles were identified after literature searches using Google Scholar and PubMed. (2012) 79:49–54. The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. (2017) 64: 644–50. Application of DIVA vaccines and their companion diagnostic tests to foreign animal disease eradication. (23) using serum samples collected in 2004 suggested the presence of PPRV in northern Tanzania before 2008, and therefore the time of the true emergence of PPR in Tanzania is unknown. They are mostly kept under extensive management systems with communal grazing and sometimes housing (32). (2011) 1:184–7. There is a lack of veterinarians or community animal health workers in rural Tanzania, the hub of small ruminant production (29, 80). (2011) 30:879. doi: 10.20506/rst.30.3.2079, 77. (49) reported that the sero-prevalence of PPR did not differ significantly between goat (26.3%) and sheep (25.2%) populations. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.592662/full#supplementary-material, 1. | The OIE recommends pre-vention and control measures including vaccination of high-risk populations along with strict controls on the movement of sheep and goats. Wane A, Dione M, Wieland B, Rich KM, Yena AS, Fall A. Sero-prevalence of PPR reported in Tanzania. EI, BA, RA, AE, AC, AO, EM, and GV: writing and review. Mass vaccination of sheep and goats in endemic countries might be a pragmatic approach to control PPR in the first phase of disease eradication. The vaccine will be available in packs of 25, 50 and 100 doses. Economic implications of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease in sheep and goats: a sample analysis of district Pune, Maharastra. (2014) 116:138–44. Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in pastoralist flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. 43:149–53. Other economic losses may result from the cost of medication, vaccination, veterinary and labor services, a reduced market value due to poor body condition, and the embargo on livestock markets imposed by authorities (44, 51, 59). Sci., 25 November 2020 Other countries that the OIE identifies as having “disease presence” in 2012-2013 2 Diallo A, et al. Afr Econ Brief . Onderstepoort J. Veterinary Res. Seropositivity without clinical manifestation has been observed in cattle, camels, buffalo, Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti), wildebeest, and impala sampled in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania (24, 25, 52). doi: 10.1007/BF02239901. (2016) 142:16–21. Goat and sheep are the species of choice for pastoralists, due to their hardiness and ability to withstand the harsh arid and semi-arid climates. Economic importance of PPR disease, PPR vaccine and vaccination. 30. Covarrubias K, Nsiima L, Zezza A. Livestock and livelihoods in Rural Tanzania. (2016) 6:1–7. Transbound Emerg Dis. As high mortality persisted amongst the sheep and goat populations in Ngorongoro and the neighboring Mara district, a new investigation confirmed the presence of PPR in Ngorongoro in June 2008, where 129/404 serum samples tested positive for PPR antibody (26, 36). (2015) 5:9. doi: 10.1186/s13570-015-0029-6, 84. (2019) 274:113730. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.113730, 96. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as sheep and goat plague, is a highly contagious animal disease affecting small ruminants. Adequate surveillance of PPR is vital for control and to inform vaccination programs, as demonstrated in countries with successful PPR control policies such as Morocco (90). Articles, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France, International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), India. Investigations should be encouraged to further evaluate the barriers to vaccine use, and factors that may affect vaccine efficacy and uptake, including the maintenance of cold-chain storage, and the correct administration. Veterinary Microbiol. 61. Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, et al. 33. Although existing PPR vaccines provide life-long immunity, they require continuous refrigeration. It was believed that PPR was confined to northern Tanzania until 2009 (42). Kardjadj M. Epidemiological situation of transboundary animal diseases in North African countries—proposition of a regional control strategy. Viruses. doi: 10.1007/s11250-017-1453-y, 91. The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. 2020 Aug;13(8):1661-1666. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.1661-1666. J Biosci Med. In order to control the disease effectively, highly sensitive diagnostic tests coupled with potent vaccines are important pre-requisites. Karimuribo ED, Loomu PM, Mellau LSB, Swai E. Retrospective study on sero-epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants before its official confirmation in northern Tanzania in 2008. Veterinary Res Commun. 21. Swai ES, Kapaga A, Kivaria F, Tinuga D, Joshua G, Sanka P. Prevalence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in various districts of Tanzania. Swai ES, Moshy W, Mbise E, Kaaya J, Bwanga S. (2011). Herd immunity levels required for successful prevention of PPR transmission is in the range of 70–90% (60), and previous vaccination campaigns in Tanzania may have fallen short of this estimate. Front Veterinary Sci. Thombare NN, Sinha MK. Vaccine is recommended for prophylactic vaccination against PPR in sheep and goats. 68. It is likely therefore, that the inability of vaccination programs to effectively contain the disease may be attributed to other factors such as poor coverage of vaccination programs, lack of control of livestock movement, and the high fecundity due to the dynamic nature of small ruminant populations (26, 87). Recent epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Vet World. For this to be attainable, it is important to understand the specific epidemiological features of the disease and identify the socio-economic factors that must be considered to stop the transmission of the disease (34). Subsequent isolation of PPRV belonging to lineage II and IV (12, 52) suggest that PPRV may have been imported into the country on more than one occasion (12, 36). Peste des petits ruminants viruses of lineages II and III identified in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Control by vaccination requires that farmers are aware of the benefits, and that they and their veterinary extension advisors appreciate that frequency of vaccination is related to herd dynamics. East Af J Sci Technol Innovat. Kumar KS, Babu A, Sundarapandian G, Roy P, Thangavelu A, Kumar KS, et al. Once introduced, the virus can infect up to 90 percent of an animal heard, and the disease kills anywhere from 30 to 70 percent of infected animals. Seven studies reported the occurrence and distribution of PPR in Tanzania (12, 24–26, 43, 49, 52). View all (41) carried out phylogenetic analysis based on the N gene of PPRV, on nasal and ocular swabs and whole blood samples obtained from PPR cases in northern and eastern Tanzania. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. Mbyuzi AO, Komba EV, Kimera SI, Kambarage DM. Karimuribo et al. Gustafson CR, VanWormer E, Kazwala R, Makweta A, Paul G, Smith W, et al. (26) highlighted low awareness among small ruminant farmers, traders, and transporters; uncontrolled livestock movements; poor availability of diagnostic tools, poor surveillance and reporting; and a lack of capacity to enforce regulations as major constraints in the control of PPR. (2020) 12:389. doi: 10.3390/v12040389, 46. Diallo A, Minet C, Le Goff C, Berhe G, Albina E, Libeau G, Barrett T. Vaccine. Table 1. The opportunity to eradicate Peste des Petits Ruminants. PPR epidemics can be controlled by animal movement control, proper carcass disposal, and vaccine use. (2014) 61:56–62. Classification of peste des petits ruminants virus as the fourth member of the genus Morbillivirus. Since the suspected incursion of PPR into Tanzania in 2008, the disease has continued to spread throughout the country, and is now endemic in most regions, despite vaccination campaigns. (45) also identified PPRV lineage III in samples collected in Ngorongoro District in 2015, which clustered with isolates from Uganda, Kenya and Democratic Republic of Congo. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. PPR control in a Sahelian Setting: what vaccination strategy for Mauritania. Herzog CM, de Glanville WA, Willett BJ, Cattadori IM, Kapur V, Hudson PJ, et al. Serological evidence of camel exposure to Peste des Petits Ruminants virus in Tanzania. 2020 Jan 15;6:488. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00488. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.12.007, 83. (2004) 5:257–62. Following the serological evidence of PPRV infection in Kenya and Uganda in 1994, the first nationwide serological screening was performed in Tanzania in 2000. Kulkarni DD, Bhikane AU, Shaila MS, Varalakshmi P, Apte MP, Narladkar BW. Trop Anim Health Product. (2016) 11:e0149982. (1994) 26:69–73. (2001) 33:423–30. At present, there is no official national reference laboratory for PPR in Tanzania, however, the Center for Infectious Diseases and Biologicals (CIDB) of the Tanzania Veterinary Laboratories Agency (TVLA) performs routine testing for PPR and has recently joined a twinning project with OIE Reference Laboratories to improve capacity for PPR diagnosis and expertise (96). doi: 10.1099/vir.0.025841-0, 11. Control strategies for peste des petits ruminants in small ruminants of India. (58) reported a significantly higher seroprevalence of PPR in semi-arid and coastal agro-ecological zones in Tanzania, when compared to the plateau ecological zones, suggesting coastal, and semi-arid regions are high risk ecological zones. A thermostable live-attenuated conventional or recombinant vaccine is a way to avoid cold chain-associated problems in tropical and subtropical countries. (2019) 3: 12–6. PLoS ONE. Transbound Emerg Dis. Limited evidence of PPRV infection has been observed in wild small ruminants (such as dik-dik, gazelle etc.) That doesn’t mean that they aren’t effective or can’t be used in goats but that they haven’t been formally tested on goats. This article investigates the occurrence and distribution of PPR in Tanzania, the circulating strains, risk factors, economic impacts, control and prevention strategies, and challenges to control of PPR. Disease Status And Risk Factors for Peste Des Petits Ruminants Along Tanzania-Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo Border. J Veterinary Sci Med. 2007. Zahur AB, Ullah A, Irshad H, Latif A, Ullah RW, Jahangir M, et al. Onderstepoort J Veterinary Res. Descriptive survey of Peste des Petits Ruminants and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia outbreaks in traditional goat flocks in Southern Tanzania: producers concerns, knowledge and attitudes. Jones BA, Mahapatra M, Chubwa C, Clarke B, Batten C, Hicks H, et al. Veterinary Res. Torsson et al. Peste des petits ruminants: a review. Front Vet Sci. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of peste des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats and sheep in the Southern Zone of Tanzania. Epidemiological survey of peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopia: cattle as potential sentinel for surveillance. doi: 10.1159/000149044, 9. Here, we discuss available potent PPR vaccines and the future possibility of developing new-generation vaccines against PPR. Namtimba AM. Peste des Petits Ruminant Technical Disease card, Animals. (2015) 2:1–4. 23. Additionally, a higher prevalence of PPR was reported in pastoral (primarily livestock) management systems, compared to agropastoral systems (a mix of crop and livestock) in Northern Tanzania potentially indicating pastoral management as a risk factor (36, 39, 40, 48). Role of wild small ruminants ( PPR ) in OIE Terrestrial Mannual.! 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