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mangrove wood for smoking

Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). These were suspended iron bandas (Figure 9(a)), suspended wooden bandas (Figure 9(b)), or circular ovens (Figure 9(c)). Wood is generally the preferred fuel for rural people because it is easily available, dispersed throughout the rural habitat, and can usually be obtained without major costs. The result is that mangrove forests continue to be depleted at an uncontrolled rate. Figure 10. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. 1,315 mangrove wood products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which charcoal accounts for 29%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 1%. This questionnaire had several components. Some were better than others and each, according to our respondents, had its advantages and disadvantages. Oven preference by zone according to respondents. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. (2013), Djessouho (2015), and Chabi et al. Get your smoke from wood – This may seem obvious. About 400 women in Cameroon’s coastal zones are contributing to environmental conservation by smoking fish with fish scales and kitchen waste as alternatives to using wood from mangrove forests. In each community, GPS coordinates were recorded using the GPS receiver (GPS GARMIN MAP 64). (2007), found that only 11.2% of producers were women. (, Polidoro, B. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. US $580.00-$620 .00 / Metric Ton ... on Alibaba.com, of which charcoal accounts for 76%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 5%. Alternative Energy Sources Used by Fish Smokers. The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. As the population increases, coastal resources will continue to come under more and more pressure (Angoni et al., 2015). Four solar dryers have been built, saving up to 40 tonnes of CO2 per year. Acrobat PDFMaker 8.1 for Word Figure 7. Nevertheless, the study shows that cinderblock ovens are categorically more economical than traditional ovens. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens. Figure 8. This is more than 11,000 hectares lost per year, which equals 4.4% of the total area of mangrove forests every year. Some pitmasters will even put the wood on top of their smoker to drive off any remaining water. Sharing links are not available for this article. TSI Evaristus, senior lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. NGUEGUIM Jules, Head of station IRAD Limbe-Batoke, for their supervision of this work and their creative thinking and hard work during the establishment phase of the project. As it cannot be prohibited, strategies need urgently to be introduced to regulate mangrove wood consumption. Report Post Likes(0) Quote Reply Posted: 25 Jan 2010 at 12:19pm. Wood purchased by fish smokers usually came from mangrove forests, continental forests (Bomanas forest), agricultural fields, and home gardens (see Figure 8). However, if your charcoal is smoking, don’t assume that the smoke coming from it is just as good as smoke from wood. The action of the shells moving together excavates a hole through the wood, and the wood shavings accumulate in the stomach which becomes a distended, worm-like bag. Alternative energy. Custom hand-crafted dog kennel crate furniture for you and a forever home for your best friend. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. Mangrove Woods, Port Charlotte, Florida. More specifically, we. Thus, type 1 error levels (i.e., reject the null hypothesis when true) are not guaranteed. The amount of wood and fish that can be used at any one time depends on oven size. In their study on fish smoking in the same region as ours, N. Z. Feka and Manzano (2008) found that 62% of wood used for fish smoking is mangrove wood. The indigenous people at the study sites belong to the Kory, Isangele, Oroko, and Balong tributes (Fomete & Tchanou, 1998). A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. Globally, mangrove forests are the most threatened tropical ecosystem and are being degraded and depleted at alarming rates (Polidoro et al., 2010). In their study, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014) found that for every 100 kg of fish smoked, the fuel cost was 2.5€ for a cinderblock oven and approximately 5€ for a traditional banda oven. smoke for making babies strong (Belyuen) axe handles and digging sticks (Belyuen) Aegialitis annulata ... An important bivalve which is found in dead and decaying mangrove wood is called "mangrove worm", Teredo spp. This site uses cookies. This large gap could be explained by the fact that there were not many cinderblock ovens in our study site which prevented us being able to make a thorough estimate of cinderblock oven performance. Fish and wood species, smoking time, wood purchase, and sales costs were also recorded. NB: Because the observation numbers of each variable were not equal, we used the harmonic mean of the group sizes. Figure 9. Suspended ovens have a large capacity (can take 1,500 kg) for fish and consume 500 kg to 3,360 kg of wood with a smoking time ranging from 48 to 96 hr (2–4 days). It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. The bark was also used in the tanning process as a black dye for animal skins. Fish smoking is one of the key activities impacting on the disappearance of characteristic mangrove species. Before beginning fieldwork, interviews were held with staff at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), who had a good knowledge of the study site, and were able to advise us on locations. Wood quality is important in fish smoking. If nothing is done to conserve or sustainably manage the remaining stands, then the Rhizophora species will disappear, as is already the case in Kribi and in many other regions (Ngo-Massou et al., 2014; Pouokam, 2011). Small-scale fish smokers (47.7%), who we classify as having wood expenses less than or equal to 70€, were mostly located in Batoke, Esobe, Njonji, and Bakingili. According to Degnon et al. Timber species such as Ilomba, Paduk, Zingana, and Tali were less commonly used as firewood. All statistical tests were performed at the significance level of α = 5%. We can create ovens that consume less wood," he said. However, the cost of buying a cinderblock oven is almost double that of a traditional oven (165€ compared to 89€—see Ndiaye & Diei-Ouadi, 2009). Our study marks an exception to Le Bigot & Ribier’s (2004) findings that west African tradeswomen do not receive as much schooling as their male counterparts. Resource renewal is also threatened, as long-term conservation plans are not in operation in most areas, and little or nothing is being done to address the overconsumption of this resource. Mangroves are important not only for the needs of local population, but because they have a significant influence on climate change as they sequester 5 to 6 times more carbon than conventional forests (Bilé, 2012). Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? Fish smokers’ ages ranged from 20 to over 60. Pouokam (2011) found that 55% of wood came from continental forests, 23% from home gardens, and 5% from mangrove forests. In the Sundarbans (India, Bangladesh), mangrove firewood is harvested on a commercial basis and sold in cities. For this reason, it … The climate is characterized by a brief dry season and a rainy season that last over nine months. Always meant to give the mangrove a go but never got round to it - anyone tried it ? This difference is due to the scarcity of Kribi mangroves relative to other species (Angoni et al., 2015). Three statistical tests were performed using R software. Assuming that a person who has not had any schooling is illiterate, the illiteracy rate among respondents was 31.6%. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. View or download all the content the society has access to. This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. Mangroves are known to sequester much more carbon than continental forests (Cordonnier, 2011). Fish smokers acquired firewood in several ways. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. Most women surveyed were married (88%) and many (especially foreigners) had a husband who was a fisherman and who supplied them with fish. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. <>stream In the Wouri estuary, for example, 80% of Nigerian fishermen abuse the mangrove woods to smoke their fish. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangrove forests in Cameroon through assessing the impact of fish smoking activities on mangrove resources. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. The majority of fish smokers (68%) preferred traditional ovens to the new cinderblock oven because they have a large capacity and are known to be durable. Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. I am also grateful to Pr. Introducing cinderblock ovens could be key to reducing the consumption of wood; they require half the amount of wood used by a traditional oven. Thus, although the traditional ovens have a larger capacity per smoking session, the amount smoked per kg of wood is far less compared to the cinderblock oven, the smoking time is longer and the cost of wood is far higher. N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. Many fish smokers in Cameroon, particularly those in the south west region, have at least primary school education. Historically, indigenous people gathered the leaves for this salt, and the wood was an important fuel source for smoking fish. Reasons for firewood preference according to respondents. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, There are 524 suppliers who sells mangrove wood on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. The questionnaire elicited detailed data about the wood fuel used, such as how, where, and how often wood is collected or purchased, and at what cost. Fifteen percent of respondents did not use any alternative sources of energy saying that wood was sufficient for their physicochemical requirements. Our first field trip was conducted with personnel from the IRAD and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries’ (MINEPIA) team, who introduced us to the fishing communities and explained the purpose and importance of our work. Qualitative data from the interviewers and questionnaires, and quantitative data from respondents’ consumption monitoring sheets, were analyzed for each site with Excel 2010 software. Villagers like mangrove wood for limekilns because it’s dense and burns hot enough to fully cook the shells into lime. 10 For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. (c) Circular oven. Your trusted wood smoking friend Gerry is here to help you out with finding the right wood for the job! We hope that this study will help underscore the alarming rate of mangrove depletion and thus encourage decision makers to implement conservation strategies for the sustainable management of mangrove forests through measures that also take into account the socioeconomic conditions of local populations. Indeed, there is a significant difference (F = 17.348, df = 243, p = .00012) between wood consumption in the nine communities. Table 3. Population pressure also causes mangrove destruction in unprotected areas, especially around settlements, villages, and towns where poverty and land issues force people to move onto any open land they can (ENVI-REP Cameroun, 2010). Dense, hard buttonwood, a mangrove look-alike, was once popular for smoking wood, but it’s scarce and I discourage using it. Indeed, this study found that red mangrove is the favored wood for fish smokers. Per fish smoking session, a traditional oven takes 53 hr to smoke 528 kg of fish and consume 1,205 kg of wood at a cost of 50€. It has a harder, more dense wood which means it burns hotter and longer when compared to other charcoal types. Smoker box (optional) Small aluminum pan. Table 2. They were Eyengue, Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, Debundsha, Bakingili, Batoke, Down beach, and Tiko. We also stock Honeybrix Premium Briquettes and Premium Binchotan Charcoal We also stock a range of smoking pellets and chip to suit most needs. %���� The mangroves are currently valued for fuel wood use at 4146 Ghanaian cedis (US$2765) per ha within the Efasou community. Preliminary quantitative impact assessment of wood extraction on the mangroves of Douala-Edea Forest Reserve, Cameroon, Utilisation du bois dans les pêcheries côtières du Cameroun [The use of wood in Cameroon’s coastal fisheries], Performance d’un dispositif amélioré de fumage (four Chorkor) sur la qualité du poisson fumé dans la commune d’Aplahoué (Sud-est du Bénin)/[Performance of an improved smoking device (Chorkor furnace) on the quality of smoked fish in the municipality of Aplahoue (Southeast Benin)], Évaluation de la qualité microbiologique du chinchard (Trachurus trachurus) au cours du processus de fumage traditionnel [Assessment of the microbiological quality of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) during the traditional smoking process], Nouveau concept de séchage et de fumage artisanal des aliments: Application en milieu de pêche artisanale au Gabon [New concept of artisanal drying and smoking of food: Implementation in artisanal fisheries in Gabon], Etude socio-économique et technologique de la production du poisson fermenté et séché (Guedj) au Sénégal [Socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal], Sustainable utilization of mangroves using improved fish-smoking systems: A management perspective from the Douala-Edea wildlife reserve, Cameroon, The implications of wood exploitation for fish smoking on mangrove ecosystem conservation in the South West Province, Cameroon. A study by Cameroon Ecology shows that 750 m 3 of mangrove wood is used every year for smoking fish at the local level. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. Ovens have a smoking session, the weight of the world ( Kone 2001! Visit them 4 times a week on their lives fishing video, join us for day. As Kachi charcoal that only 75 % of all respondents was twice the of! Their choices concerning firewood most notably as fuel, what does it come from by canoe percent our... Catches alight which fish smokers ovens are preferable both ecologically and economically and could be of... Others, in particular for cooking and smoking fish associations, read the below! Was assured, 2017 ) your manager software from the list below and click on download (... Without your consent lower Keys on our flats boat journal content varies our! 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Become severely depleted necessary in order for fish smokers studied these countries, may! Respondents did not use any alternative sources of energy mangrove wood for smoking occurred weekly,,... As those who spend a sum greater than or equal to 150€ per month on purchasing wood fuel, does... Stock a range of smoking pellets and chip to suit most needs smokers used a cinderblock. And sold in cities 64.6 % did not use a third choice species to subsist ; nearly 1,018 people supported. Asked some respondents to monitor their wood consumption fishing communities culture in these countries, which may prevent from..., Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, and others, in particular for cooking fish! And could be more valuable a shorter life span prohibited, strategies need urgently to be to.

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